Description

ChatGPT (Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is a chatbot launched by OpenAI in November 2022. It is built on top of OpenAI's GPT-3 family of large language models, and is fine-tuned (an approach to transfer learning)[2] with both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques.

ChatGPT was launched as a prototype on November 30, 2022, and quickly garnered attention for its detailed responses and articulate answers across many domains of knowledge. Its uneven factual accuracy was identified as a significant drawback. Following the release of ChatGPT, OpenAI was valued at $29 billion.

Training

ChatGPT was fine-tuned on top of GPT-3.5 using supervised learning as well as reinforcement learning. Both approaches used human trainers to improve the model's performance. In the case of supervised learning, the model was provided with conversations in which the trainers played both sides: the user and the AI assistant. In the reinforcement step, human trainers first ranked responses that the model had created in a previous conversation. These rankings were used to create 'reward models' that the model was further fine-tuned on using several iterations of Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO). Proximal Policy Optimization algorithms present a cost-effective benefit to trust region policy optimization algorithms; they negate many of the computationally expensive operations with faster performance. The models were trained in collaboration with Microsoft on their Azure supercomputing infrastructure. Reference  describes the architecture of a ChatGPT prototype.

In addition, OpenAI continues to gather data from ChatGPT users that could be used to further train and fine-tune ChatGPT. Users are allowed to upvote or downvote the responses they receive from ChatGPT; upon upvoting or downvoting, they can also fill out a text field with additional feedback.

Service

ChatGPT was launched on November 30, 2022, by San Francisco-based OpenAI, the creator of DALL·E 2 and Whisper. The service was launched as initially free to the public, with plans to monetize the service later. By December 4, OpenAI estimated ChatGPT already had over one million users. CNBC wrote on December 15, 2022, that the service "still goes down from time to time". The service works best in English, but is also able to function in some other languages, to varying degrees of success. Unlike some other recent high-profile advances in AI, as of December 2022, there is no sign of an official peer-reviewed technical paper about ChatGPT.

According to OpenAI guest researcher Scott Aaronson, OpenAI is working on a tool to attempt to watermark its text generation systems so as to combat bad actors using their services for academic plagiarism or for spam. The New York Times relayed in December 2022 that the next version of GPT, GPT-4, has been "rumored" to be launched sometime in 2023. In February 2023, OpenAI began accepting registrations from United States customers for a premium service, ChatGPT Plus, to cost $20 a month. OpenAI is planning to release a ChatGPT Professional Plan that costs $42 per month, and the free plan is available when demand is low.

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OpenAI
OpenAI is an American artificial intelligence (AI) research laboratory consisting of the non-profit OpenAI Incorporated (OpenAI Inc.) and its for-profit subsidiary&n

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