Nancy Patricia Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is an American politician serving as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives since 2019, and previously from 2007 to 2011. She is the only woman in U.S. history to hold this position and is the highest-ranking female elected official in United States history. As House Speaker, Pelosi is second in the presidential line of succession, immediately after the vice president.
Pelosi was first elected to Congress in 1987. She started her 17th term in 2019. She represents California's 12th congressional district, which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco. She initially represented the 5th district (1987–1993), and then, when district boundaries were redrawn after the 1990 Census, the 8th district (1993–2013). She is a member of the Democratic Party. Pelosi has led House Democrats since 2003—being the first woman to lead a party in Congress—serving twice each as House minority leader (2003–2007 and 2011–2019, when Republicans held the majority), and as Speaker (2007–2011 and 2019–present, during periods of Democratic majority).
Pelosi was a major opponent of the Iraq War as well as the Bush administration's 2005 attempt to partially privatize Social Security. During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of many landmark bills, including the Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and the 2010 Tax Relief Act.
Pelosi lost the speakership in January 2011 after the Democratic Party lost control of the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections. However, she retained her role as leader of the House Democratic Caucus and returned to the role of House minority leader. In the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats won back control of the House. Afterward, when the 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, Pelosi was again elected speaker, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955. Pelosi announced the commencement of impeachment hearings into President Donald Trump on September 24, 2019.